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Sharing this article with you, that was found at the AOL Library with permission to redistribute.
Adam Walks Between Worlds, CAW, OTO, et al.
Voice: 800/370-5263
Fight the Fear
It seems to be necessary to preface every discussion of
Witchcraft with an explanation that, no, Neo-Pagan Witches
aren't Satanists. The Christian anti-God, Satan, has no
place in Pagan pantheons, either mythologically or
theologically. Plainly and simply, to non-Christians,
Satanism is the dark side of Christianity.
     "Even today, Witchcraft is frequently misrepresented
by being confused with Satanism. Often the word Witchcraft
is used to represent two wholly opposite phenomena the
survival of ancient Paganism in one instance, and the
inversion of Christianity in another. Let us make it clear: a
Satanist is a renegade Christian, who, in his rebellion
against the authority of the church, worships Satan rather
than Christ. Such people are at times called witches and
warlocks in popular books and movies but they have little
to do with Pagan Witches. Satanists, for one thing, accept
the Christian duality between good and evil; Pagans do
not. Satanists may choose to worship evil rather than good
but they have utterly bought the Christian world view." 1
     The word Pagan derives from the Latin paganus,
meaning "peasant" or country dweller. It is correctly
applied to indigenous (native) pantheistic folk religions and
peoples. The term "Neo-Paganism" is applied to the
modern re-emergence of ancient Pagan religious values,
including the sacredness of all Life and the worship of
Nature. Contemporary Witchcraft has been a major
component of the Neo-Pagan resurgence since England
repealed its anti-Witchcraft laws in 1951.
     The Goddess and the God of Witchcraft
     The many traditions of Neo-Pagan Witchcraft have few
universal theological precepts, but one of them is certainly
the veneration of the Moon Goddess, known most
commonly by her Roman name, Diana. She is perceived
as manifesting in triple form: as Maiden, Mother and
Crone. These triple aspects are identified respectively with
the waxing, full, and waning moons. Witches gather at
esbats every full moon, to sing and dance in Her
moonlight, share cakes and wine, and work magic to heal
each other, their friends, and the Earth. Many modern
Witches expand the concept of the Goddess considerably,
and see Her also as Mother Earth and Mother Nature.
     Most traditions of Neo-Pagan Witchcraft also honor the
Consort of the Goddess in the form of the Horned God, who
is seen as Lord of Animals as well as seasonal ruler of the
Underworld. The most familiar version of the Horned God
is the Greek Pan, goat-horned and goat-hoofed, playing His
panpipes, guzzling wine from his freely-flowing wineskin,
and seducing nymphs in the woods. He is regarded as
lusty and jovial, epitomizing masculine attributes of ideal
father, brother or lover. As the Goddess of Witchcraft is
closely identified with the Moon, so the God is identified
with the Sun. In this way he may been seen mythologically
as the lover both of the Moon and of the Earth, and another
of His many epithets is Lord of Light.
     Every light casts its shadows, and the Lord of Shadows
is the other face of the Lord of Light. The Lord of the
Underworld is the title of the God in Winter when He goes
underground with the animals to hibernate. Some traditions
had Him alternate with His brother as husband to the
eternal Goddess. Others, as in the Greek Hades, had a
year-round God of the Shadows.
     The Devil You Say!
     It is essential to clarify the historic relationship of Pan
and the Devil, as Christianity has tended to confuse the
two, giving rise to the accusation that Pagans are Devil-
worshippers because some Pagan gods have horns. Once
and for all, the Christian Devil is not the God of the
Witches! The genesis of the Devil comes from a merging of
two concepts: Satan and Lucifer. The original meaning of
the word satan is adversary, and his inclusion in the Bible
represents an attempt by later apologists of the Old
Testament to justify the more negative actions of a
benevolent God (such as the persecution of Job) by
attributing the actual dirty work to a testing spirit; the
original "devil's advocate." This entity was not considered
evil until after the Persian conquest of the Hebrews
introduced them to the Zoroastrian dualism of Ahura-Mazda
(the good God) vs. Ahriman (the evil God). This later
manifested in Christianity as Manichean dualism. The
Maintain equation was brutally simple: God=Good;
Devil=Evil. But it was not until the year 447 CE that the
Council of Toledo declared the legal existence of the Devil
as an actual entity, though he was still not thought of as
necessarily manifesting in human form.
     The Lucifer story is a mish-mashed retelling of the
Canaanite myth about the overthrow of Baal by Mot and the
usurpation of Baal's throne by Athar, the God of the
morning star. The original Hebrew name for Lucifer was
helel ben shahar meaning "son of the day star" (the planet
Venus). The name Lucifer ("light bearer"), a Romano-
Etruscan title of the Sun God, was erroneously used when
the Bible was first translated into Latin.
     Various Shadow Gods or Divine Adversaries
contributed to the creation of the Devil, including the
Canaanite Moloch or Mot, the Egyptian Set or Suteck and
the Roman Saturn. The final touch was that they placed all
Pagan gods and goddesses in an adversary position to
Yahweh, the God of Israel. This is because Yahweh, as a
monotheistic deity, considers jealousy to be a virtue rather
than a vice. This is a profound cultural difference from
Pagan pantheons and polytheistic peoples who co-existed
together, whether or not in harmony. Also since unbridled
sexuality, especially for females, was defined by Judeo-
Christianity as evil, Pagan gods and goddesses who were
especially sexual or sensual garnered the new sect's
especial hatred. Pan and Dionysos were by no stretch of
the imagination evil, adversary or even shadowy deities,
but because of their riotous celebrations the Devil acquired
Pan's horns and hooves and Dionysos' bibulous nature.
This final equation of the Pagan Horned God with Satan
was not established, however, until the year 1486, when
the Dominicans Kramer and Sprenger published the
Malleus Malificarum, or "Hammer of the Witches," wherein
they gave the first physical description of the Devil as he
is commonly depicted today, declaring that this was the
God worshipped by those they wanted to call "Witches,"
and thereby justifying the centuries of terrible persecution
inflicted on those who clung to the worship of the elder
     The Devil is quite a modern patchwork quilt of other
people's ancient gods and spirits, but Christian apologists
put the cart before the horse when they try to explain that
all other Gods are just their Devil in disguise. This is a
very erroneous and intolerant attitude. No less an authority
than Jesus said: "By their fruits you shall know them." Pan
is a noble and worthy god even if He is a bit wild and
woolly; whatever else He is, He is not now nor ever was,
the Devil. 2
     Witchcraft and Shamanism
     Witches were the shamans, or medicine men and
women, of the tribal Celtic peoples of Europe, and they
functioned in precisely the same fashion as shamans of
any other tribal culture, be it American Indians, Africans, or
Australian Aborigines. In fact, and in time-honored tradition,
shamans are still commonly referred to as "Witch
Doctors." All shamans are specialists in herbal lore, and
the Witches of Pagan Europe were no exception. Usually,
but not exclusively, women, they practiced herbal
medicine, midwifery, augury, spell casting, and
counseling. Often dwelling alone out in the woods, Witches
lived close to Nature, and attuned to Her cycles. Their
gardens grew not only food, but also many kinds of herbs,
including those valued for their medicinal, anesthetic and
hallucinogenic properties. In a period of time when good
Christian folk maintained only those domestic animals that
could be considered "livestock" (i.e. useful to humans),
Witches frequently kept wild animal pets: foxes, weasels,
owls, ravens; and of course, the ubiquitous cats. Such
became known, appropriately enough, as familiars. When
Witches came to be persecuted, so did these familiar
animals, and the brutal capture, torture and burning of
millions of cats that accompanied the Witch burnings begat
the horrible Black Plague that devastated Europe in the
14th century. For the cats had kept the rat populations
under control, and it was rat fleas that were the carrier of
the bubonic plague bacillus, pasteurella pestis.
     Satanism: The Dark Side of Christianity
     Satanism was not originally a religion itself, of course,
as Satan exists only in the theology of Judeo-Christianity
(and in Islam, too, as Shaitan), and there only as an
opponent of Yahweh, the supreme God. According to
Judeo-Christian mythology, Satan (originally known as
Lucifer, the light-bearer, greatest of the angels) had led a
rebellion of a third of the angels against Yahweh,
challenging Him for the Throne of Heaven. Lucifer was
defeated, and was cast down with his followers into the
underworld, where they all became demons and devils,
their white-feathered wings and golden halos becoming
bat-wings and horns. Not to mention the forked dragon
tails. The underworld, according to Christianity, became a
place of fiery torment for doomed souls, presided over by
Satan, now the supreme Devil. Even the largely erroneous
material circulated by File 18 and the Cult Crime Impact
Network specifies the relationship of Christianity and
Satanism as thesis/antithesis:
     "Christianity and Satanism are the two inseparable
parts of the whole. You cannot believe in the existence of
one without believing in the existence of the other.
Satanists are not Anti-Believers in Christianity they are
counter-believers. The cult of Satan was developed on the
basis of the dualistic conception of Christianity. It is a
collective protest movement with one-sided and
exaggerated features which are the cause of its distorted
and usually destructive behavior. At the same time, it can
also be a creative force. It is a combination of the creativity
and destructive behavior that is so appealing to followers.
The drawing factor, over Christianity, is that 'anything
goes.' There are no constraints in Satanism." 3
     Contemporary Satanism has grown from such roots of
rebellion and has put out many shoots. If you tell an
adolescent child that the normal sexual urges of puberty
are the inspiration of Satan, or indeed, that anything else
you strongly disapprove of is "of the Devil," then you can
hardly be surprised if normal adolescent hormonal
rebellion takes a Satanic overtone. Anton LeVey of the
Church of Satan and later Michael Aquino of the Temple of
Set have basically capitalized on the idea that human
nature will emerge and if this is defined as Evil then so be
it. The '60s and '70s saw numerous Satanic splinter
groups such as The Process Church emerge with a similar
     Periodic reports of isolated Satanic groups can be more
of a danger. Most seem to be groups of teenagers who
were experimenting with the occult and, lacking any
instruction or connections with the more harmless public
groups, created their own brand of homegrown Satanism
out of various books on black magic practices available
from bookstores. This variety of Satanism is fueled by the
powerful adrenaline rush of Heavy Metal music, liberally
laced with sado-masochistic sex and heavy drug use.
Their modern mythology and primary source of inspiration
comes from the overwhelming flood of mass media horror
movies of the genre of "Rosemary's Baby" and "The
Exorcist." Recent titles like "The Cult," "The Believers,"
"Omen," "Damian," "Bride of Satan," etc, are readily
available from any video store in the country. This variety
of Satanist becomes known to authorities usually when
they are caught desecrating graveyards or churches, or
from complaints lodged by parents of members. These
kinds of groups have actually been prosecuted and
convicted for criminal activities up to and including rape
and murder. Though they are not connected geographically
they do have a common set of symbols such as inverted
crosses, inverted pentagrams, the number 666 and so on.
This is simply because most of their imagery is an
amalgam of readily available mass media sensationalism
composed of Heavy Metal subculture from groups like
Motley Crue and Black Sabbath and the ubiquitous "Devil
Cult" movies. When major established religions preach
that the end of the world from a nuclear holocaust is part of
God's plan for salvation, it should not be surprising that
the resulting fear and sense of despair of "Youth deprived
of a Future" should occasionally take on such a twisted
form of "eat, drink and make merry..." Similar attitudes
gave birth to Satanism originally during the time of the
Dark Ages with the onset of the Black Death and the
resultant economic chaos in Europe. What we need to
understand about this phenomenon is that such "... small
ephemeral Satanic groups, most consisting primarily of
young adults and/or teenagers, some led by psychopaths
and/or sociopaths continue to come and go. While they
pose no threat to the larger society, they do pose an
immediate danger to those involved in them and are
frequently involved in criminal activity, from dealing in
drugs to rape and murder." 4
     Adult Survivors
     "However, beginning in the 1980's, a new and different
set of reports on Satanism began to appear. Possibly the
first to receive any public notice was that of Michelle Smith
which appeared in a book [Michelle Remembers, Congdon
& Lattes, NY, 1980] written by Michelle and her
psychiatrist, Dr. Lawrence Pazder. Michelle Smith had
gone to Dr. Pazder seeking help with her continued
emotional distress following a miscarriage and a recurrent
nightmare. In the course of these sessions she gradually
told a story of her having been involved in a Satanic cult in
Vancouver, B.C., as a five-year-old child in 1954-55. The
events described were not a part of her conscious memory
prior to the sessions with Dr. Pazder. As the story unfolded
she told of her mother being forced to surrender her for a
ritual, the Feast of the Beast, and of her forced participation
in the group for over a year, during which time the group
tried unsuccessfully to convert her to their beliefs and
practices. Though attempts were made to uncover
independent evidence of the existence of the group, none
could be found." 5
     Soon after Michelle's book appeared, The National
Enquirer published a questionable account of a woman
who also claimed to have been raised in a devil cult and
prepared for marriage to Satan. The account took all the
elements from the Michelle story including the ritual
calendar. Since that time, similar accounts have popped up
all over the country. Perhaps there are such cruel
underground generational Satanists; child abuse is clearly
a reality and often twisted religious beliefs do play a part
in it. But it is the abuse that we should focus our attention
on, not the legitimate practice of any religion, regardless of
its orthodoxy.
     Satanism and Non-Christians
     It should be clear from the above that people who have
no belief in Christianity (i.e., Pagans, Buddhists, Hindus,
etc.) cannot be Satanists, since the two faiths, Satanism
and Christianity, are inseparable mirror images of each
other, each dependent on the other for its justification and
existence. Thus Satanists use the inverted cross to
symbolize their complete reversal of everything
Christianity stands for. Interestingly, many contemporary
Satanists also use the inverted pentagram, symbolizing as
well their complete reversal of everything Witches stand
for, as the right-side-up pentagram is the universal symbol
of Neo-Pagan Witchcraft.
     Nor are Neo-Pagans the least bit interested in the
Christian or Islamic Satan/Shaitan figure with whom the
fundamentalists are so obsessed. One has to be a
Christian or a Moslem to believe in this "God of Evil," and
frankly, the whole concept seems silly to the average Neo-
Pagan. Genuine Satanists fall into four overlapping
categories: fundamentalist Christians and Moslems
themselves, who are constantly talking about "Satan's"
power and influence; Conservative Orthodox Satanists,
who are right-wing racists looking for metaphysical
excuses to behave the way they would anyway; Liberal
Heterodox or Punk Satanists, who are kids doing it to
annoy their parents; and what journalist Paul Sulin calls
"the Sincere Sociopaths:" folks who are crazy to begin
with, believe that they are evil (often as a result of growing
up in abusive families), and who then latch onto the prime
Western image of Evil and proceed to enact the sick
fantasies that the fundamentalists have created. All of
these people are stuck in the standard dualism of
conservative monotheism.
     Neo-Pagans are interested in worshipping Nature and
the gods and goddesses of the "Old Religions" not the
tired, old abortion of monotheistic dualism. The Pagan
deities were ancient long before the monotheistic religions
were even founded; the Horned God of the Wildwood was
worshipped by our Pagan ancestors for tens of thousands
of years before the Christian church invented "The Devil."
Christians are welcome to their creation; Pagans will stick
with Mother Nature's.
     The Burning Times
     It is truly ironic that, though it is the practitioners of
Witchcraft who have historically suffered real abuse and
persecution, the Witch has somehow continued to be
misrepresented as the villain. Christianity did not become
the world's dominant religion by peaceful conversion, but
by the sword and stake. As the legions of Caesar had
forged the Roman Empire over the dead bodies of
countless tribal peoples of Europe, so did its heir, the Holy
Roman Empire, continue the tradition. Declaring them
"heresies," agents of the Holy Inquisition hunted out and
ruthlessly exterminated every religion, sect or tradition
that would not convert to "The One True Right And Only
Way." Witches, however, lived outside of any organized
religious structure, and were largely ignored until the 13th
century, when the Church had finally gained enough power
to deal with grass-roots Paganism.
     "In the 13th century the Church opened its long-drawn-
out conflict with Paganism in Europe by declaring
'Witchcraft' to be a 'sect' and heretical. It was not until the
14th century that the two religions came to grips... In 1324
the bishop of Ossory tried Dame Alice Kyteler in his
ecclesiastical court for the crime of worshipping a deity
other than the Christian God...
     "The 15th century marks the first great victories of the
Church. Beginning with the trials in Lorraine in 1408 the
Church moved triumphantly against Joan of Arc and her
followers in 1431, against Gilles de Rais and his coven in
1440, against the Witches of Brescia in 1457. Towards the
end of the century the Christian power was so well-
established that the Church felt the time had come for an
organized attack, and in 1484 pope Innocent VIII published
his Bull against 'Witches.' All through the 16th and 17th
centuries the battle raged. The Pagans fought a gallant,
though losing, fight against a remorseless and
unscrupulous enemy; every inch of the field was disputed,
but the Christian policy of obtaining influence over the
rulers and law-givers was irresistible. Vae victis [Woe to
the conquered] was also the policy of the Christians, and
we see the priests of the Papacy gloating over the
thousands they had consigned to the flames while the
ministers of the Reformed Churches hounded on the
administrators of the law to condemn the 'devil
worshippers.' What can have been the feelings with which
those unhappy victims regarded the vaunted God of Love,
the Prince of Peace, whose votaries condemned them to
torture and death? What wonder that they clung to their old
faith, and died in agony unspeakable rather than deny their
God." 6
     It should also be pointed out that the court recorders at
the Witch trials were specifically instructed that, whatever
gods or goddesses the accused actually claimed to
worship, what went into the record was "Satan," or "The
Devil." And what wonder if some of those who had come to
believe the Biblical history taught them by the
missionaries, monks and priests of the conquering faith,
concluded that the story must have gotten it wrong
somehow? That if there had indeed been a rebellion in
heaven, it was clearly evident that the winner had not been
the God of love and peace, as his propagandists claimed,
but rather a God of cruelty and evil; of war and violence,
wrath and jealousy. (This had, in fact, been an old Gnostic
tradition.) The clear implication was that the defeated
Lucifer must have been the good guy, and surely many
must have swarmed to his allegiance in this belief. While,
of course, true adherents of the Old Religions certainly
knew better, and continued their faith entirely distinct from
Christianity, there were surely, then as now, many ignorant
people who were simply too unsophisticated or too
illiterate to question the Christian paradigm once it became
established. And thus did Satanism as a belief and a
practice come into being, spawned by the Church, and
forever to be locked together with it in a fatal embrace of
mutual antagonism. Whether or not the persecuted
peasantry who came to side with Satan against their
oppressors thought of themselves as "Witches," the
Church and the authorities of the Holy Inquisition certainly
identified them as such:
     "The heart and center of the persecution of Witches
was that they were Satanists, that they had rejected the
rightful God and given their allegiance to his arch-
opponent, and that in their 'sabbaths' or meetings they
worshipped the ruler of evil, carnality and filth. Some of
those accused as Witches do seem to have taken the Devil
for their god, worshipping him as an equal opponent of the
Christian God, over whom he would eventually triumph.
They looked to Satan for power and pleasure in this world
and for a happy future in the next, and they vilified Christ
as a traitor and a cheat, who had made promises which he
did not keep, and who had gone away to live in heaven
while Satan remained with his faithful on earth." 7
     "The Witches and sorcerers of early times were a
widely spread class who had retained the beliefs and
traditions of heathenism with all its license and romance
and charm of the forbidden. . . in their ranks every one who
was oppressed or injured either by the nobility or the
church. They were treated with indescribable cruelty, in
most cases worse than beasts of burden, for they were
outraged in all their feelings, not at intervals for
punishment, but habitually by custom, and they revenged
themselves by secret orgies and fancied devil-worship,
and occult ties, and stupendous sins, or what they fancied
were such. I can seriously conceive what no writer seems
to have considered that there must have been an immense
satisfaction in selling or giving one's self to the devil, or to
any power which was at war with their oppressors. So they
went by night, at the full moon, and sacrificed to Diana, or
'later on' to Satan, and they danced and rebelled. It is very
well worth noting that we have all our accounts of sorcerers
and heretics from Catholic priests, who had every earthly
reason for misrepresenting them, and did so. In the vast
amount of ancient Witchcraft still surviving in Italy, there is
not much anti-Christianity, but a great deal of early
heathenism. Diana, not Satan, is still the real head of the
Witches." 8
     The Baby-Stealers Myth
     The public justifications for these persecutions were
based on a most remarkable myth, pervasive throughout
European history from the second century CE. The myth, or
fantasy as historian Norman Cohn labels it, postulated the
existence, somewhere in the midst of the larger society, of
"another society, small and clandestine, which not only
threatened the existence of the great society, but was also
addicted to practices which were felt to be wholly
abominable, in the liter sense of anti-human." 9
     J. Gordon Melton of the Institute for the Study of
American Religion explains that "though the myth first
appeared in the second century as a polemic against the
Christians, it had its antecedents in earlier anti-Jewish
polemics. Jews were accused of worshipping a donkey-
headed god and of keeping gentiles prisoner in the temple
in Jerusalem for the purpose of sacrifice. However, in the
second century, the Christians were accused not only of
worshipping a donkey's head, but of revering the genitals
of their priests, sacrificing and devouring the blood of
babies, and a wide variety of perverted sexuality. "The
existence of this myth, which had its last major
appearance in Nazi Germany, where it was used against
the Jews, provides a framework for a discussion of the
most recent accusations concerning contemporary
Satanism." 10
     One wonders what would be the commonly held "facts"
about Judaism if Hitler had been as successful in his
efforts against the Jews as the Medieval Church was in its
eradication of Pagan Witchcraft. But you don't have to have
lived in Nazi Germany to have heard the vicious
propaganda that Jews kidnap unbaptized Christian babies
and grind them up into Matzoh balls. And before the Jews,
it was the Gypsies who were the purported child-stealers.
During the Witch-hunting hysteria previously mentioned,
these same accusations were leveled at Witches. Today,
continues Melton, "as currently hypothesized by the
advocates of the theories on contemporary Satanism, there
exists a network, national, if not international in scope, of
small groups of Satanists. These Satanists, financed by
wealthy sexual perverts and sociopaths, practice the most
barbaric and inhumane rituals which involve widespread
torture, murder, the sexual abuse of children, the mutilation
of animals, and even cannibalism." 11
     The myth that an easily-targeted group of relatively
defenseless people are engaged in the stealing, torture,
ritual sacrifice and cannibalism of innocent children has
proven throughout history to be quite sufficient to engender
public support for a campaign of extermination directed
against the accused. In the case of this current Witch-hunt,
extensive police investigation over the past decade has
failed to corroborate the existence of an actual Satanic
conspiracy. In those cases of ritual child abuse that have
actually come to court, the vast majority have involved
Christian clergy: "Hundreds of children molested by
Catholic priests in the United States during the past five
years have suffered severe emotional trauma, say
parents, psychologists, police officers and attorneys
involved in the cases." 12
     "The Roman Catholic Church in the United States has
been forced to pay millions of dollars in damages to
families who contend that their children have been
sexually abused by priests. In spite of that, the problem
has grown so severe that many lawyers and victims say
the church ignores and covers up such cases." 13 The few
cases of child abuse involving "Satanic elements" that
have been tried have not revealed any organized Satanic
cult, but rather a handful of sick and demented individuals
claiming they committed their crimes because "the Devil
made me do it." If such a conspiracy exists, it will remain
to be uncovered by the police; hopefully in cooperation
with the people who have come forward as spokespersons
for the survivors of actual cases of Satanic Ritual Abuse.
     The actual Satanic abuse statistics, however, do not
support the requirements of the new Witch-hunters, who, in
order to whip up the kind of public hysteria that can give
them power and credibility, must point their fingers at an
identifiable and accessible scapegoat. Thus they have
chosen, once again, to lay their myth of child-stealing and
ritual human sacrifice at the feet of the Witches. By
continually identifying Witchcraft with Satanism, these
current Inquisitors hope to justify and validate their cause.
For there are well over 100,000 practicing Neo-Pagan
Witches in America today, according to such genuine
authorities as Margot Adler. 14 Many Witches are highly
visible in their communities: they publish books,
magazines and directories; operate stores; conduct public
rituals; give classes, workshops, interviews and lectures;
and appear on local radio and television programs. Since
Witchcraft is still little understood by the general public,
who are frequently unable or unwilling to look deeper than
the vast smoke screen of misinformation promulgated by
churches, movies and popular fiction, Witches are easy
and visible targets for persecution. It must be remembered
that, in the previous episodes of Witchcraft persecution
hysteria, it was the Witches who were the victims, not the
     Witches, and those conveniently accused of beings
Witches, died by the millions during the terrible centuries
of the holocaust they remember as "The Burning Times."
They have no wish to repeat that experience today. The
Aquarian Anti-Defamation League was founded in 1973 with
the motto: "Never Again the Burning!"
     Notes and References:
     It is not the purpose of this article to determine the
validity or extent of actual ritual child abuse or
contemporary Satanism. The interested reader is referred
to the quoted 13-page paper by J. Gordon Melton, which
covers these topics in depth.
     1. Jong, Erica, Witches (New American Library, New
York, 1981) p. 52
     2. Zell, Morning Glory, "The Lord of Light," Green Egg,
Vol. XXI, No. 82; Aug. 1, 1988 (POB 1542, Ukiah, CA 95482)
p. 12
     3. "Dynamics of Counter Religions" (The Cult Crime
Impact Network, 222 N. Latah St., Boise, ID 83706, 1985)
     4. Melton, J. Gordon, "The Evidence of Satan in
Contemporary America: A Survey;" a paper presented at
the meeting of the Pacific Division of the American
Philosophical Association, Los Angeles, March 27-29,
1986. (Available from the Institute for the Study of American
Religion, POB 90709, Santa Barbara, CA 93190) pp. 7-8
     5. Ibid. p. 11
     6. Murray, Margaret, The God of the Witches (Oxford
University Press, New York, 1931) pp. 21-22
     7. Cavendish, Richard, "Satanism," Encyclopedia of
Man, Myth and Magic, Vol. 18 (Marshall Cavendish, New
York, 1970) p. 2479
     8. Leland, Charles Godfrey, Legends of Florence,
(David Nutt, London, 1896)
     9. Cohn, Norman, Europe's Inner Demons, (Meridian,
New York, 1977) p. xiii
     10. Melton, ref. cit., p. 1
     11. Ibid.
     12. Akron Beacon Journal, Jan. 3, 1988
     13. The Miami Herald, Jan. 3, 1988. See also
Shadowcraft, Ammond, "Molesting Ministers and
Pedophiliac Priests: Child Sexual Abuse by Christian
Clergy," Green Egg, vol. XXI, no. 84; Feb. 1, 1988, pp. 18-
20 ($5 postpaid from POB 1542, Ukiah, CA 95482)
     14. Adler, Margot, Drawing Down the Moon: Witches,
Druids, Goddess-Worshippers and Other Pagans in
America Today, revised and expanded edition (Beacon
Press, Boston, 1986) p. 418